12 January, 2022

International Organization for Migration. World Migration Report 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic has hampered our lives in recent years. Its impact has been felt across its borders; having a significant impact on international mobility. Movement restrictions that have been put imposed, which have resulted in the closure of borders at the peak of the pandemic, have prevented mass population flows from one country to another. As months went by, restrictions on internal and international displacement were softened, as health measures such as the request for vaccination certificates were gaining ground.

In the context of a health emergency and population flows, Europe and Asia have hosted the largest number of international migrants, even though an increase in international migration has happened across all continents, in the period from the 1990s to the second decade of the 21st century.

Despite this data, trends show that most displacements occur within countries. In 2009, there were 740 million internally displaced persons; unlike international migrants, who only accounted for 3.6 per cent of total displacements.

Another aspect that helps explain the migration phenomenon is the “birth lottery”. This explains how certain nationalities have less difficulties to access visas and agreements to be exempt from visas. The human development index is a determinant factor as well. Those countries that have a high human development index tend to be the destinations attracting most migrants. At the same time, migrants coming from countries with a low human development index will face difficulties in migrating legally, and will resort to methods of illegal displacement. The report stresses the fact that countries with a medium-high human development index are the main receiving countries of migrants and the destinations of remittances.

The report includes several chapters. Some provide data on migration, in terms of the global landscape, and some regional specificities. The impact of COVID-19 on mobility and migration in the world, as well as the impact of the technological revolution in generating disinformation on migration, are discussed in depth. The report also devotes a chapter to the impact of climate change on migration trends, how migration leads to human trafficking and how conditions of peace and security can facilitate development and safe migration.

To obtain further information about the report published by the International Migration Organization (IMO) about migration trends, access the following link: https://publications.iom.int/books/world-migration-report-2022

Author: Noelia Gómez Bosqued, intern at ANUE